First coined by Umberto Eco, Ur-Fascism refers to the prototypical ideology that has expressed itself in various movements with different
names, from the Fascists of Italy to the Nazis of Germany to the Falangists of Spain to the modern-day American “alt-right” and European “identitarian” movements.
“Fascism became an all-purpose term because one can eliminate from a fascist regime one or more features, and it will still be recognizable as fascist. … I think it is possible to outline a list of features that are typical of what I would like to call Ur-Fascism, or Eternal Fascism. These features cannot be organized into a system; many of them contradict each other, and are also typical of other kinds of despotism or fanaticism. But it is enough that one of them be present to allow fascism to coagulate around it.” -Umberto Eco